Monitoring Citrus Root Weevils

Tacy CalliesPests, Tip of the Week

By Larry Duncan Soilborne larvae that feed on citrus roots are the damaging life stage of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Pachnaeus spp. (bluegreen) root weevils. Newly developed adult weevils, which emerge throughout the warm months of the year, also occur in soil.  A peak emergence of adults occurs at some point each spring or early summer. Less frequently, a smaller emergence … Read More

Keep Citrus Trees Hydrated

Tacy CalliesIrrigation, Tip of the Week

Frequent irrigation with good quality water can improve fruit growth and development and overall productivity. By Tripti Vashisth HLB-affected citrus trees have small and weak root systems. Though the roots are efficient in taking up water and nutrients, there are not sufficient roots to support the tree’s canopy requirement. Therefore, the trees often experience water and nutrient deficit. Not all … Read More

Scouting for Lebbeck Mealybugs

Tacy CalliesPests, Tip of the Week

By Lauren Diepenbrock Lebbeck mealybugs (Nipaecoccus viridis) have quickly made an impact on citrus groves in Central and South Florida since the pest was first found in 2019. While management techniques are still being studied, this article describes actions growers can take to find this pest before it becomes a problem. SOOTY MOLDLebbeck mealybugs excrete sugary honeydew, much like many … Read More

What to Consider Before Planting Cover Crops

Tacy CalliesCover Crops, Tip of the Week

For those interested in cover crops for citrus groves, the end of harvest and the upcoming start of the rainy season is a great time to start planning. Cover crops can have a variety of benefits to soil health. These include increasing soil organic matter and microbial diversity and activity as well as reducing weed growth. While research is still … Read More

Citrus Leafminer Sampling Techniques

Tacy CalliesPests, Tip of the Week

By Xavier Martini Citrus leafminer (CLM) is a recurring pest in citrus groves that lays eggs on new growth shoots (flush). After hatching, larvae penetrate directly into the leaf and begin feeding on sap and leaving a serpentine mine in the leaf. CLM population dynamics are mostly driven by flushing pattern, with two flight peaks in early spring and late … Read More

Tackling Weeds After Composting

Tacy CalliesTip of the Week, weeds

By Ramdas Kanissery The use of compost in tree rows is receiving increasing attention among citrus growers. The use of weed-free certified products can considerably minimize the weed emergence issues associated with compost use. However, eventually, weeds will start to grow in the composted areas in the grove. As compost and similar soil amendments prove to be very rich in … Read More

Plan Greasy Spot and Melanose Management

Tacy CalliesDiseases, Tip of the Week

By Megan Dewdney Greasy spot and melanose are two fungal diseases that have long needed the attention of Florida citrus growers. While they are more of a concern for fresh fruit growers, trees for processing can be damaged, too. In terms of management priorities, greasy spot is the greater concern since it reduces tree photosynthetic capacity and causes defoliation. Melanose … Read More

Plan Now for Phytophthora Season

Tacy CalliesDiseases, Tip of the Week

By Evan Johnson The Florida citrus spring leaf flush is hardening off, which means the first root flush of the year is beginning. With the spring root flush comes thoughts of phytophthora foot rot. Spring roots are at particular risk in groves that had high phytophthora pressure last fall because many of the resting spores will start activating with the … Read More

Instant Information on Herbicides

Tacy CalliesTip of the Week, weeds

By Ramdas Kanissery Citrus growers face weed management problems throughout the year due to favorable conditions that allow the rapid growth of weeds in groves. A weed-free tree row is desired in citrus to minimize competition with the trees. This can be achieved by utilizing post-emergent herbicides that control the weeds that have already emerged. Growers have several product options … Read More

What to Do About Citrus Black Spot

Tacy CalliesDiseases, Tip of the Week

By Megan Dewdney Citrus black spot is one of the newer diseases to worry Florida citrus growers. The fungal disease was first detected in Southwest Florida in 2010. The vast majority of finds have been in the southwestern citrus-producing counties of Collier, Hardee, Lee, Charlotte and Glades, but the disease has slowly moved northward. Black spot is still considered a … Read More

Time to Check Under the Hood for Nematodes

Tacy CalliesPests, Tip of the Week

By Larry Duncan Monitoring population levels of plant parasitic nematodes and phytophthora is best done in springtime prior to the rainy season. Peak population density of the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipentrans) occurs at that time, and the accuracy of sample results increases with population density. The sampled population levels of this nematode and those of Phytophthora spp. can be compared … Read More

Scout for Scale and Mealybug Crawlers

Tacy CalliesPests, Tip of the Week

By Lauren Diepenbrock While scale and mealybug pests commonly found in citrus have historically been controlled by predators and parasites, management advice for this group of insects is often requested. There are likely several underlying factors to these insects becoming more frequently encountered. This includes changes in insecticide management practices, changes in nutritional management, and increased scouting due to the … Read More

Prepare for Citrus Canker Season

Tacy CalliesDiseases, Tip of the Week

By Evan Johnson Now that bloom has arrived, it is time to start thinking about canker management. As the fruitlets develop, they will become susceptible around the end of March to the beginning of April. The spring fruit lesions are particularly concerning because they cause fruit drop. Without proper management, early season canker can cause 90 to 100% crop loss … Read More

Minimize Blemishes on Tangerines and Grapefruit

Tacy CalliesDiseases, Tip of the Week

Megan Dewdney Since tangerines and grapefruit they are eaten fresh, a blemish-free peel is highly desired. Two diseases that frequently mar the peels of tangerines, and occasionally grapefruit, are Alternaria brown spot (ABS) and citrus scab. Both diseases cause symptoms on leaves and fruit. ALTERNARIA BROWN SPOTThe early foliar symptoms of ABS are small yellow flecks that quickly become larger … Read More

Thrips Management Tips

Tacy CalliesPests, Tip of the Week

As Florida growers prepare for the spring bloom, it is time to think about a pest that thrives on citrus flowers: thrips. Most notably, flower thrips are known to cause damage to developing flowers in sweet orange. Feeding damage can range from negligible to causing abortion of the flower or developing fruitlet. This pest is particularly challenging because it migrates … Read More

Scout Early Bloom for PFD

Tacy CalliesCitrus, Diseases, Tip of the Week

By Andre B. Gama and Megan M. Dewdney Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) of citrus is a disease caused mostly by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum. This fungus survives by producing resting structures on leaves and stems. When flowers start to appear in groves, these resting structures produce spores that can cause PFD. However, the fungus requires specific weather conditions to be … Read More

Time to Cut the Dead Wood

Tacy CalliesTip of the Week

By Megan Dewdney, Tripti Vashisth and Lauren Diepenbrock Dead wood has long been challenging for fresh citrus fruit production. Spores in twigs can form which cause blemishing diseases that downgrade fruit for lower profits. More recently, it has come to light that there are horticultural and entomological reasons to remove this wood as well. Many growers are familiar with melanose, … Read More

Plan Your Insect Management for 2021

Tacy CalliesPests, Tip of the Week

By L.M. Diepenbrock Insect and mite management is a year-round challenge in Florida citrus. With the warm climate, pests are at the ready as soon as plant resources are available to them. With knowledge of insect and mite biology in relation to tree phenology, plans can be developed to protect fruit and maintain productive citrus trees. Populations of many of … Read More

Avoid Salt-Out of Liquid Fertilizers

Tacy CalliesTip of the Week

By Ajia Paolillo The use of liquid fertilizers in citrus production has increased over the years. Liquid fertilizers offer the grower a way of applying frequent doses of fertilizer to trees to optimize nutrient efficiency. Now that the winter months are here with cooler weather and some cold nights, growers may face the issue of liquid fertilizer salting-out in the … Read More

Compost Use and Weed Management

Tacy CalliesTip of the Week, weeds

By Ramdas Kanissery Application of compost as a soil amendment could be an integral part of citrus production’s best management practices. Compost application can potentially improve soil quality and provide additional nourishment to trees. Citrus-producing soils in Florida are generally sandy and low in soil organic matter. Compost addition tends to enhance the soil’s ability to retain both nutrients and … Read More