Choosing a Lemon Rootstock

Tacy Callieslemons, Rootstocks

By Kim D. Bowman Lemons are a relatively small part of the Florida citrus crop. But with more than 317,000 lemon trees propagated in Florida nurseries over the past two years, lemons are clearly gaining increasing interest from growers trying to find a crop that is easier to grow and with a quick return on investment. As is the case … Read More

Varieties and Rootstocks Reviewed

Ernie NeffRootstocks, Varieties


In his virtual Citrus Expo presentation, Jude Grosser reviewed varieties and rootstocks showing promise for productivity in the face of HLB. Grosser is a University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) plant breeder. His presentation was based on work done by him and fellow UF/IFAS researchers Bill Castle and Fred Gmitter. Grosser said UF/IFAS released OLL-20 “based … Read More

Long-Term Rootstock Evaluation Is Best

Ernie NeffRootstocks

A variety of different findings in recent rootstock trials led to a conclusion that long-term evaluation of rootstocks is necessary to assess economic benefits to growers. That conclusion was part of a take-home message in Ute Albrecht’s virtual Citrus Expo presentation. Albrecht is a researcher with the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS). Her report was … Read More

Rootstock and Scion Affect Orange Juice Flavor

Tacy CalliesRootstocks, Scions

By Yu Wang, Fred Gmitter and Jude Grosser A major concern for the citrus industry is a significant decline in production due to huanglongbing (HLB). In addition to the production shortfalls are losses due to fruit rejection by packinghouses and juice processing plants as a result of inadequate size and low sugar content. Bitterness and metallic off flavors in the … Read More

Rootstock Offers High Hopes for HLB Tolerance, Maybe Resistance

Tacy CalliesRootstocks

The new Sugar Belle hybrid rootstock LB8-9xS13#16 has quite a history, according to University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences citrus breeder Jude Grosser.  “This is one of several projects I did with Orie Lee toward the end of his Florida Citrus Hall of Fame career/life,” recalls Grosser. “We did a lot of brainstorming together, and he was … Read More

New Rootstocks in the Citrus Breeding Pipeline

Tacy CalliesResearch, Rootstocks

By Jude Grosser, Fred Gmitter and Kim Bowman Two citrus breeding programs have identified several rootstocks that can currently be planted with confidence when combined with appropriate scions, including mid- and late-season oranges, and grown with emerging enhanced nutrition programs. These citrus breeding programs are at the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Citrus Research and Education … Read More

Rootstock Effects on Valencia and Hamlin in Large-Scale Commercial Plantings

Tacy CalliesResearch, Rootstocks

By Ute Albrecht, Sudip Kunwar and Jude Grosser Prior to 1865, the only rootstocks used in Florida were sour orange and sweet orange. Use of grafted trees instead of seedling trees became necessary because of the devastating effects of phytophthora on sweet orange. Sour orange was widely used as a rootstock because of its resistance to phytophthora and other positive … Read More

How to Use the New Florida Citrus Rootstock Selection Guide

Tacy CalliesRootstocks

By Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, William S. Castle, Kim D. Bowman, Jude W. Grosser, Stephen H. Futch, Steve Rogers and Andres Gonzalez First published in 1989 as Rootstocks for Florida Citrus, the work of William Castle and his colleagues remains relevant 30 years later. The purpose of the fourth edition of the Florida Citrus Rootstock Selection Guide is to provide timely … Read More

Lessons Learned From Rootstock Field Trials

Tacy CalliesResearch, Rootstocks

By Bill Castle “The notion that field trial data are of little value in the early years and trials must run for 15 years is outdated.”  [Lesson 7] “Our new website provides the grower community with user-friendly access to our collective decades of rootstock trial data…” [Lesson 9] Those are two of many lessons shared in a recent article authored … Read More

Rootstock Trial Results on New Website

Tacy CalliesRootstocks

A new website with a wealth of information about citrus rootstocks is now available at Rootstock breeder Kim Bowman, with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service in Fort Pierce, has posted results from 37 replicated multiyear rootstock field trials in Florida. The results can be easily accessed from the site by computer, tablet or smartphone.  According … Read More

Rootstock Selection Made Easier

Ernie NeffRootstocks


The recently released fourth edition of the Florida Citrus Rootstock Selection Guide is “way more user friendly” than past editions, one of its authors says. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) researcher Rhuanito “Johnny” Ferrarezi says “a completely redesigned website” is what makes the guide so useful for growers. Ferrarezi works as an assistant professor at … Read More

Some Scions Incompatible With US-1283 Rootstock

Daniel CooperIndustry News Release, Rootstocks


By Kim D. Bowman and Ute Albrecht The US-1283 rootstock was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 2014, based on field performance with Hamlin 1-4-1 sweet orange in trials at two different locations in Florida severely affected by huanglongbing disease. One of these trials was in St. Lucie County and of 14 years duration, while the second … Read More

Thoughts on the Scion and Rootstock Selection Process

Tacy CalliesRootstocks, Scions

By Bill Castle If timing is everything, then let me suggest that the timing is right to consider the following proposals about making scion and rootstock choices in the Florida citrus industry: What to plant? That is a huge question that could be initially addressed by a one-day program carefully planned as to objectives, format and participants. I was reminded … Read More

Citrus Rootstock Guide Updates Available Online

Daniel CooperIndustry News Release, Rootstocks

citrus trees

(UF/IFAS) — Florida’s citrus growers may now access the updated Florida Citrus Rootstock Selection Guide, which is more user- and mobile-friendly. Revisions include current University of Florida rootstock horticultural traits, three new rootstocks that tolerate citrus greening and an updated bibliography. “The fourth edition of the Florida Citrus Rootstock Selection Guide has a new look and information for a comprehensive description … Read More

Rootstock Work Discussed

Ernie NeffRootstocks


University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) plant physiologist Ute Albrecht discusses her research on citrus rootstocks. Albrecht points out that sour orange was the dominant rootstock in Florida several decades ago, until trees on the rootstock succumbed to citrus tristeza virus. “Now we have many other rootstocks that are beneficial for different reasons,” she says. Those … Read More

Giving Back to Orie Lee

Ernie NeffResearch, Rootstocks

The late Orie Lee was renowned for his long and generous cooperation with University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) scientists conducting citrus research on his property. One of those researchers, plant breeder Jude Grosser, says the industry is now giving a little back to the Lee family. Grosser discusses 12 federally funded trials in which rootstocks … Read More

Advice on Picking Rootstocks

Ernie NeffRootstocks

Growers who attended a recent Citrus Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) rootstock field day in Highlands County should look at similar CRDF trials when deciding what rootstocks to plant. That’s the opinion of Jim Graham, a CRDF project consultant who spoke at the event last month. The same six rootstocks with Valencia scions that are in field trials in Highlands … Read More

Rootstock Solutions for HLB

Ernie NeffHLB Management, Rootstocks


University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) citrus breeders are working on both short-term and long-term rootstock solutions for HLB, Fred Gmitter said earlier this year. Gmitter and fellow UF/IFAS citrus breeder Jude Grosser have already identified numerous rootstocks that seem to offer tolerance to the disease. Tolerance would help growers in the short term. Gmitter says … Read More

Grower Picks Favorites at Rootstock Trial

Ernie NeffRootstocks

Gardinier Florida Citrus General Manager Lee Jones named two rootstocks that looked appealing at an April 25 Citrus Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) rootstock field day in Highlands County. “(US) 942 kind of stands out to me,” he said. “(US) 812 looks good,” he added. “What we’re learning as we’re going is we’ve got to spoon feed this (citrus trees) … Read More